Caring for the baby's skin  Your baby's skin is sensitive and needs some special care. They may develop some skin problems like the ones listed below:
1. Diaper rash - Babies often develop rashes in their diaper area because the skin there is in contact with stool and urine. To treat diaper
rash, increase air circulation by closing the diaper loosely or using a larger size. It’s essential to keep the affected area clean and dry. This
means changing the baby’s diaper often and, during diaper changes, washing his bottom with warm water and patting it dry. Don't use soap or baby wipes; they could exacerbate the rash. Make sure to change wet diapers frequently and wipe well after bowel movements. You can also apply a white ointment, called zinc oxide to protect the skin. If the rash worsens despite the ointment, go see your baby’s doctor.
2. Baby acne - This condition will resolve itself in a matter of weeks. It consists in a small red or white bumps that typically appear on the face around the 4 - 5 weeks. To avoid the exacerbation of the problem wash the baby's face with plain water avoiding harsh detergents.

Bellybutton Stump  Some newborn babies have umbilical hernias. This symptom is caused by a gap in the abdominal muscles and it isn't dangerous and will resolve on its own. Do not bind the baby’s belly in cloth or rope.

Fevers and colds  You do not need to check your baby’s temperature everyday. But if your baby feels warm to the touch, or he or she is not acting normally you should take your baby’s temperature to see if he or she has a fever. For children less than 3 months (90 days) old, take an armpit (axillary) temperature. It’s a safe method that is adequate for screening. If your baby has a temperature of 100.4 degrees F (38 degrees C) or higher, your baby has a fever. Call your baby’s doctor right away. Always check with your baby’s doctor before giving your baby any medicines. The most accurate way to measure your baby’s temperature is to check his or her rectal temperature with a digital thermometer. Digital thermometers are made of plastic, low-cost, and can be easily found at your local drug store. Do not use a mercury thermometer or ear thermometer because they are not safe or accurate for babies.
Babies can get colds just like the rest of us. A cold is caused by a virus and usually results in mild symptoms in your baby. Another common illness in infants is RSV (respiratory syncytial virus). RSV usually causes mild, cold-like symptoms. Call the doctor or get emergency care.
For mild colds, there is usually no special treatment. However, if the nose becomes too runny or stuffy, it may make it hard for a young baby
to nurse or drink from a bottle. Since a baby can't blow her nose, you may have to clear out mucus by suctioning with a bulb syringe. Also talk to your doctor about using warm water or saline nose drops to loosen up dried mucus before suctioning. Don't give your baby any medications without checking first with your doctor.

Congestion  Newborns often become stuffed up or congested from mucus due to the small size of their nostrils. Parent have to remove the mucus usually resorting to a bulb suction can be used to remove the mucus from your baby’s nose or mouth.
1. To suck the mucus from the mouth turn your baby on his side with the head slightly lower than the body and press in the bulb before placing it.  As you suction out the mucus or milk, be careful not to catch the delicate mucous membranes inside the cheeks or the back of the throat.
2. Suck the mucus from the nose in a similar way, inserting only the tip of the bulb syringe.
Be extremely careful with this procedure. Don't suck the mouth or nose too vigorously, too often, or for too long can dry and irritate delicate tissues and cause trauma to the mouth or nose. It is normal for babies to sometimes sneeze and cough due to the mucus in their nose. Sometimes saline drops can help loosen the mucus and make bulb suctioning easier. Suctioning often, especially before feeding and sleeping, will help your baby to breathe more easily.

Gastrointestinal issues
1. Vomiting - As long as your baby is gaining weight appropriately and not vomiting after every feed, there is no need for medication. If
the vomiting occurs with every feed or there is blood, see the doctor right away. It is normal for babies to spit up small amounts of milk after
feeding, especially with a burp. This problem usually resolves with time and will stop when the baby is older. To reduce vomit you can give your baby smaller amounts of milk each feed and feed him more frequently; help him burp frequently to eliminate gas in the stomach; and avoid lying the baby flat on his back right after feeding.
2. Hiccups - All babies frequently hiccup. They do not feel any uncomfy with hiccups so there is need to give him any medicine or water to stop them. Hiccups are normal and they will stop after a few minutes, at most half an hour.
3. Bowel movements and colic - Most babies stool two to five times a day during the first week of life and then slow down to about once or twice a day. Every baby has a different bowel movement schedule. It is normal for breastfed babies to stool 7-8 times a day. As long as the stool is soft and yellow or green, it is normal. If the stool is watery, bloody, or hard like little pebbles, take your baby to see the doctor right away. Occasionally, they may experience some colic. They can be caused by sensitivity to food in the nursing mother’s diet. Cow’s milk products are common sensitivities but there are other food items that may cause problems include stimulants and gas-producing foods. Ask your practitioner what foods will be recommended to cut from your diet to see if the symptoms of colic improve.


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